Reading Lists

Intro and  reading list

Skin Lightening Bibliography 1

Ahmed, S (2004) The Cultural Politics of Emotion. London: Sage Publications Ltd

Akortha, E.E, Niemogha, M.T and Edobor, O (2012) Mutagenic and genotoxic screening of eight commonly used skin whitening creams in Nigeria. Bajopas Volume 5, Number 1, pp.5-10.

Al-Dhalimi, A.M and Aljawahiry, N (2006) Misuse of topical corticosteroids: a clinical study in an Iraqi hospital. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol.12, No.6, pp.847-852.

Al-Saleh, I and Al-Doush, I (1997) Mercury Content in Skin-Lightening Creams and Potential Hazards to the Health of Saudi Women. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 51, pp. 123-130.

Armstrong, L (2009) Global skin lighteners market booms. Available from: (Accessed 30th June 2011).

Baddhan, R (2013) UK ratings: Star Plus zooms ahead of rivals. Available from: (Accessed 18th January 2013).

Badruddoja, R (2005) Color, Beauty, and Marriage: The Ivory Skin model. South Asian Graduate Research Journal (SAGAR), 15, pp. 43-79.

Barthes, R (1972) Mythologies. Translated by Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang.

Baumann, S (2008) The moral underpinnings of beauty: A meaning-based explanation for light and dark complexions in advertising. Poetics 36, pp. 2-23.

BBC News (2008) Inside Out: Skin-Lightening. Available from: (4th December 2013).

BBC News (2013) Kanebo apologises for lightening products’ skin damage. Available form: (Accessed 7th January 2014).

Begoun, P (2014) Hydroquinone for Skin-Lightening. Available from: (Accessed 4th January 2014).
Benshoff, M.H and Griffin, S (2004) America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bentley-Phillips, B and Bayles, H.A.M (1975) Cutaneous Reactions to Topical Application of hydroquinone: results of a 6-year investigation.  Sa Medical Tydskrif, pp.1391-1395.

Bhattacharyya, G, Gabriel, J and Small, S (2002) Race and Power: Global racism in the twenty-first century. London: Routledge.

Bird, D, Caldwell, H and DeFanti, M (2010) The Quest For Beauty: Asia’s Fascination With Pale Skin. From: Oglesby, A.R, Leblanc, P.H and Adams, G.M (editors) Business Yearbook: Global Business Perspectives. Volume XVII, Number 1. Available from: (Accessed 4th October 2012).
Black, P (2004) The Beauty Industry: Gender, Culture, Pleasure.  London: Routledge.

Blades, D (2012) Power and Socioscientifc Issues: The Pedagogy of Mire’s Critique of Skin Whitening Cosmeceuticals. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 12 (3), pp.292-301.

Blay, A.Y (2011) Skin Bleaching and Global White Supremacy: By Way of Introduction. The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 4-46.

Bodenhorn, H (2006) Colorism, Complexion Homogamy, and Household Wealth: Some Historical Evidence. American Economics Review, Vol 96, No.2, pp. 256-260.

Bonilla-Silva, E (2009) Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. Second Edition. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Bray, M (2002) 'Skin Deep: Dying to be White', 15 May 2002.

Buncombe, A (2008) Skin-whitening adverts ignite race row in India. Available from: (Accessed: March 20th 2011).

Burke, P.A and Maibach, H.I (1997) Exogenous ochronsis: An overview.  J Dermatolog Treat, 8, pp.21-26.

Callaghan, A.K (1994) Introduction. in Callaghan, A.K (editor) Ideals of Feminine Beauty: Philosophical, Social and Cultural Dimensions. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Carr, D (2002) On the covers of magazines, a full racial palette is still rare. Available from: (Accessed 3rd July 2013).

Chaipraditkul, N (2013) Thailand: beauty and globalized self-identity through cosmetic therapy and skin-lightening. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, Vol.12, pp.27-37.

Chapkins, W (1986) Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance. Boston: South End Press.

Charles, D.A.C (2007) Skin Bleachers; Representations of Skin Color in Jamaica. Journal of Black Studies, Volume 40, Number 2, pp. 153-170.

Charles, D.A.C (2011) The Derogatory Representations of the Skin Bleaching Products Sold in Harlem The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 117-141.

Cheng, C.K (2008) Demystifying Skin Color and “Race”. From: Hall, E.R (editors) Racism in the 21st Century: An Empirical Analysis of Skin Color. New York: Springer.

Cherry, K (2013) Structure of a neuron: Dendrites. Available From: (Accessed 30th December 2013).

Chi, C, Wang, S, Kirtschig, G and Wojnarowska, F (2009) Systematic review of the safety of topical corticosteroids in pregnancy. From: J Am Acad Dermatol, Volume 62, Number, pp.694-705.           

Coard, I.S, Breland, M.A and Raskin, P (2001) Perceptions of and Preferences for Skin Color, Black Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem Among African Americans. From: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Volume 31, 11, pp. 2256-2274.

Coleman, M.A (2006) Oxford Dictionary of Psychology. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Coser, A. L (1957) Social Conflict and the Theory of Social Change. From: The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 8, No. 3.

Counter, A.S and Buchanan, L.B (2004) Mercury exposure in children: A review. From: Toxicol Appl Pharm 198 (2), pp.209-230.

Cullison, D, Abele, D.C and O’Quinn, J.L (1983) Localized exogenous ochronosis. From: Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, 8, pp.882-889.

Dahrendorf, R (1958) Toward a Theory of Social Conflict. From: The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 2, No. 2.

D’Souza, D (1995) The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society. New York: The Free Press.

Derrick, J (2014) How Can I Lighten My Dark Skin. Available from: (Accessed 13th January 2014).

Desmedt, B, Van Hoeck, E, Rogiers, V, Courselle, P, De Beer, O.J, De Paepe, K and Deconinck, E (2014) Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics. From: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 90, pp.85-91.

de Souza, M.M (2008) The concept of skin bleaching in Africa and its devastating health implications. From: Clinics in Dermatology, 26, pp.27-29.

Delgado, R and Stefancic, J (2012) Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. Available from: (Accessed January 2nd 2013).

Denzin, K.N (2002) Reading Race. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

DiCicco-Bloom, B and Crabtree, F.B (2006) The qualitative research interview. From: Medical Education, 40, pp. 314-321.

Diven, D.G, Smith, E.R, Pupo, R.A and Lee, M (1990) Hydroquinone – induced localized exogenous ochronosis treated with dermabrasion and CO2 laser. From: Journal of Dermatology, Surgical and Oncology, 16, pp.1018-1021.

Donald, J and Rattansi, A (1992) Introduction. From: Donald, J and Rattansi, A (editors) ‘Race’, Culture and Difference. London: The Open University.

Dyer, R (1997) White. London: Routledge.

Edwards, M.J, Agho, K, Attia, J, Diaz, P, Hayes, T, Illingworth, A and Roddick, L.G (2003) Case-control study of cleft lip or palate after maternal use of topical corticosteroids during pregnancy. From: Am J Med Genet A., 120 (4), pp.459-463.

Edwards, K, Carter-Tellison, M.K and Herring, C (2004) For Richer, For Poorer, Whether Dark or Light: Skin Tone, Marital Status, and Spouse’s Earnings. From: Herring, C, Keith, V and Horton, D.H (editors) Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the “Color-Blind” Era. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Etcoff, N (1999) Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. London: Little, Brown and Company.

Euromonitor International (2012) Passport: Skin Care in India. From:\PDF\&f=S-213404-22021692.pdf&code=tdF%2bl1FHaXTtTSXxl9VrBSKivK8%3d   (Accessed November 16th 2012).

European Commission (2006) Enterprise and Industry Directorate General – Consumer Goods – Cosmetics. Available from: (Accessed 23rd March 2011).

European Commission (2013a) MANUAL ON THE SCOPE OF APPLICATION OF THE COSMETICS REGULATION (EC) NO 1223/2009 (ART. 2(1)(A)) Version 1.0. Available from: (  (Accessed 11th November 2013).

European Commission (2013b) Review of Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. Available from: (Accessed 7th January 2014).

Fabos, A (2008) Resisting “Blackness”: Muslim Arab Sudanese in the Diaspora. From: ISIM Review, 21. Available from: (Accessed 9th 0ctober 2012).

Farr, R (1993) Theory and method in the study of social relations. From: Breakwell, M.G and Canter, V.D (editors) Empirical approaches to social representations. Oxford: Clarendon.

Feagin, J (2001) Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations. New York: Routledge.

Fears, M.L (1998) Colorism of Black Women in News Editorial Photos. From: The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol.22, No.1, pp. 30-36.

Featherstone, M (1991) The Body in Consumer Culture. From: Featherstone, M, Hepworth, M and Turner, S.B (editors) The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: SAGE Publications.

Featherstone, M (2011) Body, Image and Affect in Consumer Culture. From: Body & Society, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 193-221.

Ferguson, R (1998) Representing ‘Race’: Ideology, identity and the media. London: ARNOLD.

FDA (2013) Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products. Available from: (Accessed 2nd December 2014).

Freedman, R (1986) Beauty Bound. D.C.: Lexington Books.

Fritchey, E (2013) The Future of Skin-Lightening Ingredients: Botanicals Take Centre Stage. Available from: (Accessed 30th December 2013).

Frost, L (2005) Theorizing the Young Women in the Body. From: Body & Society Vol.11, No.1, pp.63-85.

Fuller, T (2006) Glamour at a price in Asia – Health & Science – International Herald Tribune. Available from: (Accessed 13th January 2014).

Garner, S (2010) Racisms: An Introduction. London: SAGE Publications.

Gill, R (2008) Culture and Subjectivity in Neoliberal and Postfeminist Times. From: Subjectivity, 25, pp. 432-445.

Girling, J (2006) Emotion and Reason in Social Change: Insights from Fiction. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Glenn, N.E (2008) Yearning for Lightness: Transnational Circuits in the Marketing and Consumption of Skin Lighteners. From: Gender & Society, Vol 22, No. 3, pp. 281-302.

Goldberg, T.D (1993) Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Goon, P and Craven, A (2003) Whose Debt: Globalisation and Whitefacing in Asia. Available from: (Accessed 18th December 2012).

Gosai, A (2008) Lighten Up? Available from: (Accessed 24th June 2013).

Gross, R (2005) Psychology: The Science Of The Mind And Behaviour. Fifth Edition. London: Hodder Arnold.

Hall, E.R (1995) The bleaching syndrome: African-Americans’ response to cultural domination Vis-á-Vis skin color. From: Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 26 (2), pp.172-184.

Hall, E.R (2008) Manifestations of Racism in the 21ST Century. From: Hall, E.R (editors) Racism in the 21st Century: An Empirical Analysis of Skin Color. New York: Springer.

Hall, E.R (2011) A Psychogenesis of Color-Based Racism: The Implications of Colonialism for People of Color. From: Psychology Vol.2, No.3, pp. 220-225.

Hamermesh, S.D (2011) Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People Are More Successful. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Harrison, S.M and Thomas, M.K (2009) The Hidden Prejudice in Selection: A research Investigation on Skin Color Bias. From: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 1, pp. 134-168.

Herring, C (2004) Skin Deep: Race and Complexion in the “Color-Blind” Era. From: Herring, C, Keith, V and Horton, D.H (editors) Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the “Color-Blind” Era. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Hill, E.M (2002) Skin Color and the Perception of Attractiveness Among African Americans: Does Gender Make a Difference? From: Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 65, No.1, pp. 77-91.

Hodel, K (2012) Thailand’s skin-whitening craze reaches woman’s intimate areas. Available from: (Accessed 1th January 2014).

Hoijer, B (2011) Social Representations Theory: A New Theory for Media Research. From: Nordicom review 32, 2, pp. 3-16.

Holtzman, L (2000) Media Messages: What Film, Television, and Popular Music Teach Us About Race, Class, Gender and Sexual Orientation. New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc.

Howarth, C (2006) A social representation is not a quiet thing: Exploring the critical potential of social representations theory. From: The British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, pp. 65-86.

House of Parliament (2013) Skin-lightening Treatments. Available from: (Accessed 4th December 2013).

Hundal, S (2010) The dark side of skin-whitening cream. Available: (Accessed 20th November 2012).

Hunter, L.M (2002) “IF YOU’RE LIGHT YOU’RE ALRIGHT”: Light Skin Color as Social Capital for Women of Color. From: Gender & Society, Vol 16. No.2, pp. 175-193.

Hunter, L.M (2005) Race, Gender, and the Politics of Skin Tone. New York: Routledge.

Hunter, L.M (2011) Buying Racial Capital: Skin-Bleaching and Cosmetic Surgery in a Globalized World. From: The Journal of Pan African Studies, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 142-164.

Hunter, M (2004) Light, Bright, and Almost White: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Light Skin. From: Herring, C, Keith, V and Horton, D.H (editors) Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the “Color-Blind” Era. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Hunter, M (2007) The Persistent Problem of Colorism: Skin-Tone, Status, and Inequality. From: Sociology Compass 1/1, pp. 237-254.

Hussein, N (2010) Colour of Life Achievements: Historical and Media Influence of Identity Formation Based on Skin Colour in South Asia. From: Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 403-424.

Jablonski, G.N (2012) Living Color: The Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Colour. Berkley: University of California Press.

Jha, S and Adelman, M (2009) Looking for Love in All the White Places: A Study of Skin Color Preferences on Indian Matrimonial and Mate-Seeking Websites. From: Studies in South Asian Film and Media Volume 1 Number 1, pp. 65-83.

Johnson, E.S (2002) The Pot Calling the Kettle Black? Gender-specific Health Dimensions of Color Prejudice in India. From: Journal of Health Management, 4, 2, pp. 215-227.

Jones, G (2010) Beauty Imagined: A History of the Global Beauty Industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, M (2008) An Anatomy of Cosmetic Surgery. Oxford: BERG.

Kadam, V.S, Chintale, A.G, Deshmukh, K.P and Nalwad, D.N (2013) Cosmeceuticals an Emerging Concept? A Comprehensive Overview. From: International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry, 3 (2), pp.308-316.

Kamau, P and Jordan, R.B (2002) Kinetic study of the oxidation of catechol by aqueous copper. From: Inorganic Chemistry, 41 (12), pp.3076-3083.

Kaplan, A.E (1997) Looking for the Other: Feminism, Film, and the Imperial Gaze. London: Routledge Inc.

Karnani, A (2007) Doing Well By Doing Good – Case Study: ‘Fair & Lovely’ Whitening Cream. From: Strategic Management Journal, 28, pp. 1351-1357.

Keith, M.V and Herring, C (1991) Skin Tone and Stratification in the Black Community. From: The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 769-778.

Kosut, M and Moore, J.L (2010) Introduction: Not Just the Reflective Reflex: Flesh and Bones in the Social Sciences. From: Moore, J.L and Kosut, M (editors) The Body Reader: Essential Social and Cultural Readings. New York: New York University Press.

Lakoff, T. R and Scherr, L.R (1984) Face Value: The Politics of Beauty. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Leong, S (2006) Who’s the fairest of them all? Television ads for skin-whitening cosmetics in Hong Kong. From: Asian Ethnicity, Volume 7, Number 2, pp.167-181.

Levin, C.Y and Maibach, H (2001) Exogenous ochronosis: an update on clinical features, causative agents and treatment options. From: Am J Clin Dermatol, 2, pp.213-217.

Levitt, J (2007) The safety of hydroquinone: A dermatologist’s response to the 20006 Federal Register. From: J Am Acad Dermatol, Volume 57, Number, 5, pp.854-872.

Li, H.P.E, Min, J.H, Belk, W.R, Hosei, K.J and Bahl, S (2008) Skin Lightening and Beauty in Four Asian Cultures. From: Advances in Consumer Research. Volume 35, pp. 444-449.

Lindsey, B.T (2011) Black No More: Skin Bleaching and the Emergence of New Negro Womanhood Beauty Culture. From: The Journal of Pan African Studies, Vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 97-116.

Lowe, B (1994) Body Image and the Politics of Beauty: Formation of the Feminine Ideal in Medieval and Early Modern. From: Callaghan, A.K (editor) Ideals of Feminine Beauty: Philosophical, Social, and Cultural Dimensions. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Lodén, M, Ungerth, L and Serup, J (2007) Changes in European Legislation Make it Timely to Introduce a Transparent Market Surveillance System for Cosmetics. From: Acta Derm Venereol, 87, pp.485-492.

Mahé, A, Perret, J.L, Ly, F, Fall, F, Rault, J.P, Dumont, A (2007) The cosmetic use of skin-lightening products during pregnancy in Dakar, Senegal: A common and potentially hazardous practice. From: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 101, pp.183-187.

Majeed, M and Prakash, L (2008) A Lighter Skin Tone and More With Natural Actives. Page 1-16. Available from: (Accessed 24th November 2013).

Malik, S (2007) The Domination of Fair Skin: Skin Whitening, Indian Women and Public Health. From: (Accessed November 14th 2012).

Marzulli, F.N and Brown, W.C (1972) Potential systematic hazards of topically applied mercurials. From: J. Soc, Cosmet. Chem. 23, pp.875-886.

McKinney, E (2013) Birmingham Trading Standards crack down on stores selling toxic cosmetics. Available from: (Accessed 5th January 2014).

McLoughlin, L (2013) Crystal clear: Paler skin equals beauty – a multimodal analysis of Asiana magazine. From: South Asian Popular Culture, Vol.11, No.1, pp.15-29.

Mire, A (2005) Pigmentation and Empire: The Emerging Skin-Whitening Industry. Available from: (Accessed 4th December 2013).

Mire, A (2010) Pigmentation and Empire. Available from: (Accessed 4th December 2013).

Mire, A (2012) The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University-Linked Corporate Scientific Officer. From: Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 12 (3), pp.272-291.

Montagu, A (1997) Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. Sixth Edition. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.

Muizzuddin, N, Marenus, D.K, Mammone, T and Maes, H.D (2009) A novel method to study the skin-lightening effect of topical materials. From: J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, pp.501-508.

Murdock, G and Golding, P (1977) Capitalism, Communication and Class Relations. From: Curran, J and Gurevitch, M and (editors) Mass Media and Society. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Murphy, T, Slotton, G.D, Irvine, K, Sukontason, K and Goldman, R.C (2009) Mercury Contamination of Skin Whiteners in Cambodia. From: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 15, pp.1286-1303.

Nattapong, S and Omboon, L (2008) A new source of whitening from a Thai Mulberry planet and its betulinic acid quantitation. From: Natural Product Research, Vol.22, No.9, pp.727-734.

Negishi, M (2013) Recall in Japan Blemishes Skin-Whitening Industry Booming Business in Asia Is Shaken After Women Using Kanebo Products Develop Splotches. Available from: (Accessed 9th January 2014).

Negrin, L (2008) Appearance and Identity: Fashioning the Body in Postmodernity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

NHS (2013) Corticosteroids. Available form: http://www.nhs/uk/conditions/Corticosteroid-(drugs)/Pages/Introduction.aspex (Accessed 30th December 2013).

Nnoruka, E and Okoye, O (2006) Topical Steroid Abuse: Its Use as a Depigmenting Agent. From: Journal of the National Medical Association, Vol.98, No.6, pp.934-939.

Noble, T (2000) Social Theory and Social Change. NY: Palgrave: Macmillan.

O’Donoghue, L.J (2006) Hydroquinone and its analogues in dermatology – a risk benefit viewpoint. From: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 5, pp.196-203.

Olumide, Y (1986) Abuse of topical steroid in Nigeria. From: Nigerian Medical Practitioner, 11 (1), pp.7-12.

Osuri, G (2008) Ash-coloured Whiteness: The Transfiguration of Aishwarya Rai. From: South Asia Popular Culture, 6 (2), pp.109-123.

Parker, M.P (2010) The 2011-2016 World Outlook for Skin Lighteners. Available from: (Accessed February 14th 2013).

Parvez, S, Kang, M, Chung, H, Cho, C, Hong, M, Shin, M and Bae, H (2006) Survey of Mechanisms Depigmenting and Lightening Agents. From: Phytotheraphy Research, 20, pp.921-934.

Perera, S (2010) Whiteness and its discontents: Notes on politics, gender, sex and food in the year of Hanson. From: Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol.20, No.2, pp.183-198.

Persaud, H.W (2005) Gender, race and global modernity: a perspective from Thailand. From: Globalizations, Volume 2, pp.210-227.

Petit, A, Cohen-Ludmann, C, Clevenbergh, P, Bergmann, J and Dubertret, L (2006) Skin lightening and its complications among African people living in Paris. From: J Am Acad Dermatol, Volume 55, Number 5, pp.873—878.

Pitman, S (2009) In-Cosmetics Asia focuses on skin lightening trend.  Available from: Available from: (Accessed: March 20th 2011).

Pitts, V (2003) In The Flesh: The Cultural Politics of Body Modification. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Puri, N (2007) Beyond the pale? Available from: Available from: (Accessed 20th March 2011).

Research 24th Consulting Group (2013) EU New Cosmetics Law To Take Effect in July 2013. Available from: (Accessed 11th December 2013).

Rhoads, R (2013) Quickly and Naturally Brighten Dull Skin Without Hydroquinone. Available from: (Accessed 4th January 2014).

Robinson-Moore, L.C (2008) Beauty Standards Reflect Eurocentric Paradigms – So What? Skin Color, Identity, and Black Female Beauty. From: Journal of Race & Policy, Vol.4, Issue 1, pp.66-85.

Rondilla, L.J and Spickard, P (2007) Is Lighter Better? Skin-Tone Discrimination among Asian Americans. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Russell, K, Wilson, M and Hall, R (1993) Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans. New York: Anchor Books.

Safe Cosmetics Action Network (2011) Hydroquinone. Available from: (Accessed 4th January 2014).

Sah, C.R (2012) Poisonous Cosmetics: The Problem of Mercury in Skin Whitening Creams in Nepal. Available from:,%20%Mercury%20in%20Skin%20Whitening%20Creams.pdf (Accessed 2nd December 2014).

Saiyasombut, S and Voices, S (2012) Thailand’s skin whitening craze: How far will it go? Available from:  (Accessed 13th January 2014).

Shankar, P.R and Subish, P (2007) Fair skin in South Asia: an obsession? From: Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists, 17, pp. 100-104.

Sharma, P (2011) Cosmeceuticals: Regulatory Scenario in US, Europe & India. From: International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology, Vol.3, Issue No.4, pp.1512-1535.

Shevde, N (2008) All’s Fair in Love and Cream: A Cultural Case Study of Fair & Lovely in India. From: Advertising & Society Review, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp. 1-9.

Shome, D (2012) Why you should be wary of skin-lightening products. Available from: (Accessed 24th November 2013).

Smit, N, Vicanova, J and Pavel, S (2009) The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents. From: Int. J. Mol. Sci. , 10, pp.5326-5349.

Southwark Council (2013) Illegal skin-lighteners. Available from: (Accessed  11th  December 2013).

Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council (2013) Trading Standards & Licensing Service Plan 2013-2015 (Accessed 11th December 2013).

Struessmann, A (2010) News on Worldwide Cosmetics Regulation – Focus Japan, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong. Available from: (Accessed 9th January 2014).

The Japan Times (2013) Kanebo’s costly scandal’. Available from: (Accessed 4th January 2014).

Toure, A (2012) Bleached and Black. Available from: (Accessed 27th November 2013).

Trepagnier, B (2010) Silent Racism: How Well-Meaning White People Perpetuate the Racial Divide. Second Edition. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.

Tsuji-Naito, K, Hatani, T, Okada, T and Tehara, T (2007) Modulating effects of a novel skin-lightening agent, α-lipoic acid derivative, on melanin production by the formation of DOPA conjugate products. From: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 15, pp.1967-1975.

Tuker, H.K (2002) Classical Social Theory: A Contemporary Approach. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

UK Government (2013) Draft 2013 No.V7 Consumer Protection: The Cosmetics Regulations 2013. Available from:  (Accessed 11th November 2013).

Umberson, D and Hughes, M (1987) The impact of physical attractiveness on achievement and psychological well-being. From: Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, pp. 227-236.

Weldon, M.M, Smolinski, S.M, Maroufi, A, Hasty, W.B, Gilliss, L.D, Boulanger, L, Balluz, S.L and Dutton, J.R (2000) Mercury poisoning associated with a Mexican beauty cream. From: West J Med, Volume 173, pp.15-18.

Wolf, N (1991) The Beauty Myth. New York: Vintage.

Wright, H (2013) Mercury and steroids found in skin lightening products in Welwyn Hatfield. Available from: (Accessed 28th December 2013)

Xie, J (2012) Review of cosmetics regulation in Asia. Available from: (Accessed 5th January 2013).

Xie, V.Q and Zhang, M (2013) White or tan? A cross-cultural analysis of skin beauty advertisements between China and the United States. From: Asian Journal of Communication, Vol.23, No.5, pp.538-554.

Yeomans, M (2012) Skin-lightening factory shut down due to mercury findings. Available from: (Accessed 5th January 2014).

Yeomans, M (2013) Skin whitening update: Kanebo denies postponing legal plea. Available from: (Accessed 9th January 2014).

Skin Lightening Bibliography 2

Ajani ya Azibo, D. (2011) ‘Commentary: On Skin Bleaching and Lightening as Psychological Misorientation Mental Disorder’ Journal of Pan African Studies 4(4): 219-232.

Al-Saleh, I. et al. (2012) ‘The dangers of skin-lightening creams’, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 94(1): 195-219

American Society for Plastic Surgeons (2012) ASPS Annual Report 2011:

August, M. (2006) ‘Asian mania for skin whitening’, June:

Aziz, F. (dir) (2007) ‘The Unbearable Whiteness of Being’:

BBC (2009) ‘Make me White’ (Pres. Anita Rani) 1 May

Bhattacharya, P. (2008) ‘Indian men seeking male-specific skin care’ India Skin Care September, 59-62

Blay, Y. (2011) ‘Skin Bleaching and Global White Supremacy: By Way of Introduction’ Journal of Pan African Studies 4(4): 4-46.

- (2009a) Editorial: ‘Struck by Lightening: The Transdiasporan Phenomenon of Skin Bleaching’ Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, 14, 1-10.

- (2009b) ‘“Ahɔɔfe Kasa!”: Skin Bleaching and the Function of Beauty among Ghanaian Women’ Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, 14.

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